PUFA in Weight Management
- Appetite is one of the important effective factors in controlling obesity that can be regulated by leptin.
- Leptin reduces food intake and accelerates energy expenditure.
- Different dietary and hormonal factors, including Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA), can affect leptin functions, specifically through affecting adipose tissue.
- PUFA leads to increased leptin levels.
- PUFA n-3 as the main component of synaptic endings was recognized to be involved in fat metabolism through signaling in the brain in the study.
- PUFAs interact with hormones such as ghrelin, leptin, and insulin and modulate their actions to maintain whole body homeostasis.
Mechanisms of PUFA n-3 supplementation in the management of obesity
Supplementation with PUFA during rapid weight loss increases serum PUFA concentrations and may help prevent unfavorable changes in fatty acid tissue composition and essential fatty acid deficiency.
Some studies have utilized n-3 PUFA supplementation prior to a weight loss intervention, such as dietary restriction and/or an exercise regimen, and reported significant reductions in weight.
Isomaltulose in Weight Management
- Insulin resistance and excess body weight are associated with reduced serum levels of taurine.
- Taurine contributes to various biological pathways, which include anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, reducing insulin resistance, and improving the lipid profile.
- Taurine can directly influence adipose tissue via:
Impacting energy expenditure by increasing genes expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-α, PPAR-γ, and PPAR-γ Co-activator protein (PGC)-1α3
Reducing M1 macrophages [releasing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory factors] and increasing M2 macrophages (contributing in lipotoxicity reduction)3
Having sulfonic acid as a natural anti-inflammatory amino acid3
- Body weight was significantly reduced at 12 weeks compared to baseline in both the isomaltulose (ISO) group (p<0.001) and the sucrose (SUC) group.
- Participants in both groups continued to lose weight with a faster rate of weight loss in the ISO group compared to that in the SUC group.
- The overall weight change from baseline to week 12 was -3.2 ± 2.9 kg and -2.1 ± 2.6 kg for ISO and SUC.
Baseline adjusted mean body weight and body fat change from baseline at weeks 4, 8, and 12 for the participants consuming isomaltulose (triangles, dotted lines) or sucrose (circles, solid line).
Partial Meal Replacement for Weight Loss
- Partial meal replacement (PMR) plan contains two portioned-controlled, vitamin/mineral fortified meal replacements (MRs), usually beverages and food bars, per day and one balanced meal consisting of lower-energy, high-nutrient-dense, conventional foods.
- PMR is associated with lower total fat and cholesterol intake which results in managing overweight.
- PMR plans may be an affordable and practical approach for the management of obesity.
- PMR plan may potentially eliminate poor food choices, while effectively reducing the total calories consumed per day.
- The result from a clinical study showed a trend towards weight loss when the patient follows the PMR plan.
- A trend towards weight loss in comparing the weight at baseline to 1, 3, and 6 months after implementation of the PMR program.
Taurine for Weight Loss
- Obesity may indicate a taurine-deficient state, due to reduced taurine synthesis in the adipose tissue of obese humans.
- Taurine stimulates energy expenditure in obese shows that taurine can overcome the negative effects of proinflammatory cytokines, and it may therefore effectively prevent the development of obesity.
- Taurine treatment decreased the number of M1 macrophages and increased the number of M2 macrophages.
- Lastly, taurine and taurine chloramine do indeed affect the adipose tissue, which includes enhancing energy expenditure and suppressing.
A study was conducted for 8 weeks of taurine/placebo supplementation associated or not with exercise in obese women. Taurine supplementation along with exercise promotes positive effects in energy metabolism and in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue lipid metabolism regulation.