Taurine for Energy1

  • Taurine deficiency may cause a weak energy metabolism and energy metabolism dysfunction.
  • Taurine biosynthetic ability is limited, and its supplementation in the diet can strengthen energy metabolism in muscle performance, cardiac function, liver activity, and adipose tissue.
  • Combining taurine with other drugs may have a superior effect in energy metabolism.
  • In many metabolic disorders, taurine, or the combination of taurine with other drugs, also functions as a repair treatment for damaged tissues and acts as a promoter for the balance of energy metabolism.

Glutamic Acid for Energy2

  • Decreased glutamine availability is linked with disorders in the immune system and an increase in the incidence of infections.
  • Exhaustive exercise induces an increase in macrophages functionality, as well as, an augment in glutamine consumption and metabolism in these cells, indicating the importance of glutamine for macrophages functionality.
  • Ammonia buffering

BRAIN

  • Energy substrate
  • Ammonia excretion

KIDNEY

  • Ammonia buffering

INTESTINE

LIVER

  • Energy substrate
  • Glycogen and glutathione synthesis
  • Ammonia metabolism

MUSCLE

  • Energy substrate
  • Glycogen and glutathione synthesis
  • Ammonia metabolism
  • Attenuates muscle damage

OTHER TISSUES

  • Anti-inflammatory cytoprotective and immunomodulatory roles
  • Indirect antioxidant by increasing glutathione synthesis

Anti-fatigue Properties of Glutamine

Glutamine is one of the most abundant glycogenic amino acids in humans, having a significant influence on the anaplerosis of the Krebs cycle and gluconeogenesis.

Glutamine also presents an important immunomodulatory role, increasing the synthesis of anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective factors, such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) and heat-shock protein (HSP).

Glutamine supplementation seems to attenuate markers of muscle damage, such as blood creatine kinase (CK) and LDH levels.

Glutamine is especially interesting for athletes who practice exhaustive and prolonged exercises.

Inositol for Energy3

L-carnitine can be found throughout the central nervous system, where it plays a fundamental role in producing energy.4

The acetyl group attached to the carnitine molecule enhances its ability to pass across the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, where it acts as a powerful antioxidant.4

During bulking periods, taking L-carnitine can help limit fat gains and make a “cleaner” bulk. If you’re cutting, it can help transport the fat you have into your cellular furnaces to get burned as energy.4

  1. Wen C, Li F, Zhang L, et al. Taurine is involved in energy metabolism in muscles, adipose tissue, and the liver. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 Jan;63(2):e1800536.
  2. Coqueiro AY, Rogero MM, Tirapegui J. Glutamine as an anti-fatigue amino acid in sports nutrition. Nutrients. 2019 Apr 17;11(4):863.
  3. Chatree S, Thongmaen N, Tantivejkul K, et al. Role of inositols and inositol phosphates in energy metabolism. Molecules. 2020 Nov 1;25(21):5079.
  4. Your expert guide to carnipure L-carnitine.
    Adapted from : https://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/your-expert-guide-to-carnipure-l-carnitine.html